Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2023 →  #10 →  Back

To 75th anniversary of Sergey Zhulyev, founder of the scientific school of materials technology in Volgograd state technical university
ArticleName The effect of electromagnetic stirring on processes of alloy crystallization and the macro- and microstructure of continuously cast billets for production of pipes which are resistant to hydrogen sulfide
DOI 10.17580/chm.2023.10.10
ArticleAuthor L. V. Palatkina, V. V. Galagan, M. V. Matasova, M. Yu. Chubukov

Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russia
L. V. Palatkina, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Technology of Materials, e-mail:
V. V. Galagan, Master's Student, Dept. of Technology of Materials, e-mail:
M. V. Matasova, Master's Student, Dept. of Technology of Materials, e-mail:


Volzhsky Pipe Plant, Volzhsky, Russia
M. Yu. Chubukov, Cand. Eng., Deputy Head of the Central Plant Laboratory, e-mail:


Based on computer simulation, a pseudobinary diagram was constructed for steel 26KhGMF, in accordance with which (based on the results of recent publications devoted to in situ observations of the peritectic reaction and peritectic transformation), the phase-structural mechanisms of its crystallization were refined. It has been established that during solidification of a continuously cast billet Ø260 mm from 26KhGMF steel, a zone structure of dendritic crystals (typical for continuous casting) is formed in its volume, while electromagnetic mixing (EMM) of
the melt ensures the almost complete absence of physical inhomogeneity in the thermal center. Based on a qualitative analysis of the microchemical inhomogeneity of the distribution of silicon, an appearance appears, which manifests itself during EMF of the melt, the effect of increasing the solidification rate is enhanced in dendritic crystals on the effect of peritectic transformation of the uneven supply of elements (over the cross section of austenite layers of different input), which occurs when solid-phase transformations occur. It is also shown that the dendrites of the environment are manifested by external manifestations of color, which characterize microsegregation zones with a different presence of silicon in them. To clarify the nature of the formation of shells, it was suggested that their crystallization nature is due to the presence of excitedly active impurities in the melt, which have an increased sensitivity according to Gibbs. A developed analysis showed the presence of a sufficient amount of a substance, which showed that the concentration of highly active impurities (As, Sb, Sn, Pb, Zn and Bi) is more than 0.02 %, which can lead to the formation of silicon shells during electromagnetic ignition of the melt. Fused EMF micro-induced volume discontinuities in "dendrite" and "interbranch" are inherited by the finished product (and sulfide stress corrosion cracking resistance of casing pipes to sulfide stress corrosion cracking) zones.

keywords Peritectic reaction, peritectic transformation, dendritic crystals, electromagnetic stirring melt

1. Azizi G., Thomas B. G., Asle Zaeem M. Prediction of thermal distortion during steel solidification. Metals. 2022. Vol. 12, Iss. 11. 1807. DOI: 10.3390/met12111807
2. Kazakov A. A., Pakhomova O. V., Kazakova E. I. Study of the cast structure of industrial slab of ferrite-pearlite steel. Chernye Metally. 2012. No. 11. pp. 9–15.
3. Eldarkhanov A. S., Nuradinov A. S., Vanyukova N. D., Akhtaev S. S-S. Modern technical solutions for improving the technology of continuous casting of steel. Stal. 2018. No. 9. pp. 13–16.
4. Protokovilo I. V. MHD technologies in metallurgy (Review). Sovremennaya elektrometallurgiya. 2011. Vol. 105. No. 4. pp. 32–41.
5. Khatsayuk M. Yu. Theory and modeling of magnetohydrodynamic processes in electrotechnological complexes for metallurgical purposes: thesis of inauguration of Dissertation … of Doctor of Engineering Sciences. Krasnoyarsk, 2019.
6. Shakhov S. I. Scientific foundations for improving electromagnetic stirring systems and molds of machines for continuous casting billets and blooms: Dissertation ... of Doctor of Engineering Sciences. Moscow, 2021. 36 p.
7. Cho S-M., Thomas B. G. Electromagnetic effects on solidification defect formation in continuous steel casting. JOM. 2020. Vol. 2. pp. 3610–3627. DOI: 10.1007/s11837-020-04329-8
8. Jiang D., Zhu M., Zhang L. Numerical simulation of solidification behavior and solute transport in slab continuous casting with S-EMS. Metals. 2019. Vol. 9, Iss. 4. 452. DOI: 10.3390/met9040452
9. Jiang D., Wang R., Zhang Q., Zhang Z. et al. Effect of final electromagnetic stirring on solidification microstructure of GCr15 bearing steel in simulated continuous casting. Journal of Iron and Steel Research International. 2020. Vol. 27, Iss. 11. pp. 141–147. DOI: 10.1007/s42243-019-00257-3
10. Wang P., Xiao H., Zhang, Z., Li S., Zhang J. Behavior of mold electromagnetic stirring for round bloom castings and its eccentric stirring problem. Materials. 2022. Vol. 15, Iss. 24. 8814. DOI: 10.3390/ma15248814
11. Azizi G., Brian G. T., Zaeem M. A. Review of peritectic solidification mechanisms and effects in steel casting. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 2020. Vol. 51. pp. 1875–1903. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-020-01942-5
12. Liu T., Long M., Chen D., Huang Y. et al. Investigation of the peritectic phase transition in a commercial peritectic steel under different cooling rates using in situ observation. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 2020. Vol. 51. pp. 338–352. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-019-01758-y
13. Yang Y., Luo S., Wanget P., Wang W., Zhu M. Multiphase field modeling of dendritic solidification of low-carbon steel with peritectic phase transition. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 2021. Vol. 52, Iss. 6. pp. 3708–3719. DOI: 10.1007/s11663-021-02297-1
14. Wang W., An Z., Luo S., Zhu M. In-situ observation of peritectic solidification of Fe–Mn–Al–C steel with medium manganese. Journal of alloys and compounds. 2022. Vol. 909, Iss. 3. 164750. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2022.164750
15. Yatsenko A. I., Repina N. I., Grishko P. D. Primary structure of peritectic steels. Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov. 1988. No. 1. pp. 9–11.
16. Yatsenko A. I., Levchenko G. V., Repina N. I., Grushko P. D., Demina E. G. Crystallization and structure of peritectic steels. Metally. 2003. No. 2. pp 18–23.
17. Erekhinsky B. A., Chernukhin V. I., Arabey A. B., Pyshmintsev I. Yu. et al. Development of domestic high-strength oil pipes resistant in environments containing hydrogen sulfide. Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov. 2016. No. 4. pp. 40–46.
18. Tikhontseva N. T. Development of chemical compositions and heat treatment modes for highstrength pipes in a hydrogen sulfide-resistant design: thesis of inauguration of Dissertation … of Candidate of Engineering Sciences. Ekaterinburg, 2007. 24 p.
19. Ryzhkov M. A. Features of phase and structural transformations in rationally alloyed steels for production of high-strength pipes resistant to environments containing hydrogen sulfide: thesis of inauguration of Dissertation … of Candidate of Engineering Sciences. Yekaterinburg, 2009. 24 p.
20. Shiryaev A. G., Chetverikov S. G., Chikalov S. G., Pyshmintsev I. Yu., Krylov P. V. Technologies for production of seamless steel pipes for hard-to-recover hydrocarbons extraction. Izvestiya vuzov. Chernaya metallurgiya. 2018. Vol. 61. No. 11. pp. 866–875. DOI: 10.17073/0368-0797-2018-11-866-875
21. Shi X., Yan W., Wang W., Lian-Yu Z. et al. HIC and SSC behavior of high- strength pipeline steels. Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters). 2015. Vol. 28, Iss. 7. pp. 799–808. DOI: 10.1007/s40195-015-0257-1
22. Mohtadi-Bonab M. A. Effects of different parameters on initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracks in pipeline steels: A review. Metals. 2019. Vol. 9, Iss. 5. 590. DOI: 10.3390/met9050590
23. Rutskiy D. V., Morozov V. V., Zyuban N. A., Kirilichev M. V. et al. Production of continuous cast billets from 26KhМFМА steel for casing pipes using barium-containing master alloys. Metallurg. 2022. No. 5. pp. 45–55.
24. Agarkov A. Yu., Rutskiy D. V., Zyuban N. A., Babin G. V. Estimation of influence of melt processing with Ca- and Ba-containing wire on the phase composition and contamination with nonmetallic inclusions during ladle furnace treatment and casting of 26KhМFBА steel. Chernye Metally. 2021. No. 12. pp. 36–44.
25. GOST 31446–2017. Steel casing and tubing for petroleum and natural gas industries. Introduced: 01.07.2018.
26. Panchenko E. V., Skakov Yu. A., Popov K. V. Metallography Laboratory. Moscow : Metallurgizdat, 1957. 695 p.
27. Kovalenko V. S. Metallographic reagents. Moscow : Metallurgiya. 1981. 122 p.
28. Beckert M., Klemm H. Handbuch der metallographischen Aetzverfahren. Translated from Germany. Moscow : Metallurgiya. 1979. 336 p.
29. Khvorinov N. I. Crystallization and heterogeneity of steel. Moscow : Mashgiz. 1958. 392 p.
30. Stefanescu D. M. Microstructure evolution during the solidification of steel. ISIJ International. 2006. Vol. 46, Iss. 6. pp. 786–794. DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.46.786
31. Bunin K. P., Baranov A. A., Taran Yu. N. Analysis of phase equilibria and crystallization of metal alloys: textbook for the course “Metallography”. Dnepropetrovsk, 1973. 133 p.
32. Moon S.-Ch. The peritectic phase transition and continuous casting practice. Doctoral thesis. University of Wollongong. 2015. Faculty of engineering and information sciences. Available at: (PDF) The peritectic phase transition and continuous casting practice ( (accessed: 25.04.2023).
33. Galagan V. V., Rutskiy D. V., Agarkov A. Yu., Matasova M. V., Palatkina L. V. Study of the cast structure of a continuously cast round billet of 26KhMFB grade steel. Izvestiya Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2022. No. 7 (266). pp. 40–44.
34. Samoilovich Yu. A. Crystallization of an ingot in an electromagnetic field. Moscow : Metallurgiya, 1996. 168 p.
35. Palatkina L. V., Kostyleva L. V., Ilyinsky V. A. Study of anomalies in the dendritic structure of cast iron. Metally. 2010. No. 3. pp. 35–41.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy