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Heating and Heat Treatment
ArticleName Selection of a rational heating mode for large cold ingots for metal forming using computer simulation
DOI 10.17580/chm.2023.06.03
ArticleAuthor O. B. Kryuchkov, P. I. Malenko, L. G. Saranin, A. E. Boldyrev

Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd, Russia:

O. B. Kryuchkov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Technology of Materials, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Technology of Structural Materials, e-mail:


Tula State University, Tula, Russia:
P. I. Malenko, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, e-mail:
L. G. Saranin, Postgraduate Student
A. E. Boldyrev, Master Student


The initial temperature of the furnace, at which the cold ingot is loaded, has a decisive effect on the occurrence of temperature stresses in the heated workpiece in the elastic region. Heating of the ingot after its transition from the elastic region to the plastic state should be carried out at the maximum power of the furnace to the final surface temperature, because under these conditions, the risk of cracks is eliminated. Control of the temperature field in the workpiece after the metal is languished by plastic deformation, namely, the temperature difference between the surface and the center of the ingot, which should be no more than 50 °C, helps to eliminate the banding of the structure in the deformed metal, reduce the likelihood of various kinds of distortion of the shape of the workpiece, as well as reduce the heterogeneity of its mechanical properties. In order to develop a rational heating mode for a cold ingot weighing 10 tons of steel 35 in a chamber fuel furnace, the MathConnex mathematical package (part of MathCad Pro) was used in the work, in which an Excel tool was added to solve the differential equation of thermal conductivity in partial derivatives by the finite difference method using an implicit difference scheme, on the basis of which a flowchart was created for the calculation. Varying the temperature of the furnace and the heating time of the ingot at various stages of heating, namely the initial, in the middle of heating and metal exposure, a rational heating mode was chosen, including the ingot landing in the furnace at a temperature of 880 °C, heating at average furnace temperatures: 1090, 1350, 1425 and 1450 °C and metal exposure to equalize the cross-section temperature to 50 °C at a temperature of 1330 °C, respectively, for a time, h: 1,86; 0,83; 0,54; 0,43; 0,004 and 4,82. The use of the proposed heating mode contributes to obtaining maximum furnace performance and minimum values of heating time, fuel consumption and thickness of the decarbonized metal layer, which is confirmed by the generalized desirability function equal to 0,676.

keywords Ingot heating under pressure treatment, optimization of heating time, voltage and temperature field in the workpiece, carbon monoxide and decarburization of metal, furnace performance, fuel consumption

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