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Metal Science and Physics of Metals
ArticleName Estimation of structural damage in structural alloys obtained on the basis of 3D printing by electric arc welding based on fractal analysis of microstructures
DOI 10.17580/chm.2023.03.11
ArticleAuthor Yu. G. Kabaldin, M. S. Anosov, M. A. Chernigin

Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University named after R. E. Alekseev, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia:

Yu. G. Kabaldin, Dr. Eng., Prof., Dept. of Technology and Equipment of Mechanical Engineering
M. S. Anosov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Dept. of Technology and Equipment of Mechanical Engineering, e-mail:
M. A. Chernigin, Post-graduate Student, Engineer, Dept. of Technology and Equipment of Mechanical Engineering, e-mail:


The features of accumulation of structural damage of alloys 09G2C and 07Cr25Ni13 obtained by additive electric arc surfacing have been studied. To assess the accumulation of damage during fatigue loading, a series of microstructural studies was carried out, followed by fractal analysis of the obtained microstructures at various stages of the test and at different stress amplitudes in the cycle. In the process of fatigue loading in the microstructure of the analyzed alloys, the appearance of a large number of sliding strips is observed, already at the initial stages of testing, after which an increase in their number and total area is observed, which quantitatively shows a change in the fractal dimension of the microstructure image. According to the results of the study, a significant influence of the scale of the analyzed image on the result of the fractal dimension assessment was established. The most intense structural changes are observed at the level of individual most favorably located grains. The values of the increment of the fractal dimension of the image -0.0075, -0.009 and -0.0175 for magnifications ×100, ×200 and ×500 and more, respectively, can be taken as a criterion for the formation of a macro crack for the 09G2C alloy. The origin of the macro-crack was observed when the values of the fractal dimension of the microstructure image were reached, of the order DF =1.863±0.007. When analyzing changes in the fractal dimension for alloy 07Cr25Ni13, it was found that the area in which microcracks originated later and the appearance of a macrocrack was observed had the lowest values of the fractal dimension of the image. The origin of microcracks was observed when the values of the fractal dimension of the microstructure image were reached, of the order DF =1.87±0.006, while the image scale for the alloy under study practically does not affect the specified criterion. Based on the data obtained, an algorithm for assessing structural damage based on the fractal dimension of the image of the microstructure of alloys obtained on the basis of additive surfacing is proposed. This algorithm and software can be used to estimate the residual life and the stage of deformation and destruction of materials.
The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant No. 22-79-00095 "Development of scientific and technological foundations for the structure formation of structural materials obtained by additive electric arc growth for the formation of mechanical properties under fatigue using artificial intelligence approaches".

keywords Structural alloys, additive surfacing, microstructure, structural changes, damage, fractal analysis

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