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ArticleName The World Ocean: The lessons of history and the modern challenges
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2017.02.01
ArticleAuthor Andreev S. I., Verzhansky A. P., Cherkashev G. A.

Gramberg All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean – VNIIOkeangeologia, Saint-Petersburg, Russia:

S. I. Andreev, Head of Department, Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences,
G. A. Cherkashev, Deputy Chief Executive Officer, Professor, Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences


Russian Mining Operators Nonprofit Partnership, Moscow, Russia:

A. P. Verzhansky, Chief Executive Officer, Professor, Doctor of Engineering Sciences


The article is devoted to an actual modern problem – the study and development of mineral resources of the oceans within the framework of the contracts for exploration with the International Seabed Authority (ISA) of the UN for the three types of minerals: iron-manganese nodules (FMN), cobalt-manganese crusts (CMC) and deep water polymetallic sulphides (DPS). It is emphasized that these minerals are not only of geopolitical and, as some reason, of a distant economic importance for Russia, but are the mineral resources, which the country needs right now (Mn) or may have the acute need in the foreseeable future due to the depletion of Ni, Cu and Co reserves. It is emphasized that the FMN and CMC deposits by scale are attributable to the category of large and unique, and the DPS fi elds in which Cu and Au contents may greatly exceed those in the pyrite deposits of the Urals, by their resource potential correspond to extremely large ore formations. Given the apparent underestimation of the prospects for the development of these ocean deposits by the present Russian geological authorities, the article gives a historical example and analogy of Alaska and Fort-Ross, which in the middle of the XIX century were sold for a notional value, and soon thereafter became major mining provinces of the world. More than 20 countries are already fully aware of the fact that the problem of mineral resources of the ocean floor is undoubtedly of great industrial importance. In this regard Russia should not miss the opportunity to be among the leaders.

keywords FMN, CMC, DPS, Oceans, Alaska solid mineral resources, exploration contracts, UN, ISA, feasibility of the development

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