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Development of metallurgy in Russia and CIS
ArticleName Forged ingots: quality problems and new approaches
ArticleAuthor N. A. Zyuban, D. V. Rutskiy, S. B. Gamanyuk, S. S. Konovalov

Chair “Materials Technology”, Volgograd State Technical University (Volgograd, Russia):

Zyuban N. A., Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of the Chair, e-mail:
Rutskiy D. V., Cand. Eng.
Gamanyuk S. B., Cand. Eng.
Konovalov S. S., Postgraduate Student


The article presents trends of the modern level of development of production of large forged ingots for responsible large-size products in different industries, as well as analysis of the main directions of improvement of the quality of such metal products on the base of the research work carried out at the chair “Materials Technology” of Volgograd state technical university. The unique techniques and technologies for reduction of segregation heterogeneity in large ingots and forgings are described; they do not require large capital expenditures at their introduction into existing technological cycles at modern metallurgical enterprises. The conducted experiments included analysis of chemical heterogeneity in the ingots with masses 2.99 t, 24.2–39.0 t and 100 t made of 38KhN3MFA steel. Equalizing of chemical composition along the ingot length can be achieved via multi-pouring process, when metal pouring in the mould is executed from several furnaces, keeping carbon content controlled in each melt. Mechanical properties of tube billets made from the a.m. ingots are investigated and comparative hystogramfor usual and inoculated ingot are built. Varying the ingot form and confi guration can be considered as another method of solving the problem of non-controlled deviation of mechanical properties in the end parts of long-size forged ingots. E.g., twin ingots are used (in this case one mold is located on another). Mathematical simulation using “Crystal” software complex has displayed variable obliqueness and meeting of crystallization fronts occurs in the upper mould.

keywords Large ingots, crystallization, segregation heterogeneity, non-axial segregation stringers, inoculation, secondary contraction cavity, twin ingot, cooling piece put on, physical simulation

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